• Josip Juraćak University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, Croatia
  • Todor Marković University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Edward Majewski Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Warsaw
  • Danka Moravčikova Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Management, Nitra, Slovakia
  • Željko Kokot Ph.D. student, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia



self-employment, students, international, planned behavior, structural equation modelling


In this study, we investigated the dependence of self employment intention (SEINT) level in agricultural students from Croatia, Poland, Slovakia and Serbia on selected personal traits and country macroeconomic indicators. The results show that the SEINT level depends on student’s perceived desirability of self-employment and perceived self-effcacy. Previous experience with entrepreneurship also affects SEINT. In terms of macroeconomic indicators, higher GDP per capita has been shown to have a positive effect on SEINT, while unfavorable conditions of starting a business have a negative impact.

Students from Novi Sad (Serbia) showed higher average SEINT level compared to students from Croatia (Zagreb) and Slovakia (Nitra).


Download data is not yet available.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour.Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50(2),179-211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Bentler, P. M.,& Bonett, D. G. (1980).Signifcance tests and goodness of ft in the analysis of covariance structures.Psychological bulletin, 88(3),588-606. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Bentler, P. M. (1988). Causal modelling via structural equation systems. In:Nesselroade J. R., & Cattell R.B. (Eds.). (1988).Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology. Perspectives on Individual Differences. Springer, Boston, USA.

Buchta, K., &Jakubiak, M. (2014). Determinants of students’ entrepreneurial attitudes as an element of innovation in the process of education.ZeszytyNaukowe WSEI Seria: Ekonomia, 9(2), 167-179.

Byrne, B. M. (Eds.).(2010).Structural equation modelling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming (multivariate applications series). Taylor & Francis Group, New York, USA.

European Union (2014). Council conclusion 2014/C 183/04 of 20 May 2014 on promoting youth entrepreneurship to foster social inclusion of young people, Official Journal C 183 of 14.6.2014, 18-21.

Delmar, F.,&Davidsson, P. (2000). Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs.Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(1), 1-23. doi:10.1080/089856200283063

Forsman, H. (2011). Innovation capacity and innovation development in small enterprises. A comparison between the manufacturing and service sectors.Research Policy, 40(5), 739-750. doi:1016/j.respol.2011.02.003

Gardner, D. G.,& Pierce, J. L. (1998). Self-esteem and self-efficacy within the organizational context: An empirical comparison.Group and Organization Management, 23(1), 48-70. doi:10.1177/1059601198231004

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2017), Global report 2016/17, retrieved from: (April14, 2018)

Hayduk, L. A. (Eds.).(1987).Structural equation modelling with LISREL: Essentials and advances,Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.

Hisrich, R. D., Peters M. P., &Shepherd D. A. (Eds.).(2008).Poduzetništvo, Mate d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia.

Juračak, J. &Tica, M. (2016). Graduate students’ opinions about entrepreneurship as an employment opportunity.Apstract, 10(1),23-30. doi:10.19041/APSTRACT/2016/1/4

Kedmenec, I., Tominc, P., &Rebernik, M. (2014). Gender differences in the usage of resources in the entrepreneurial opportunity identifcation process in Slovenia and Croatia.Economic Research, 27(1), 366-377. doi:10.1080/133167 7X.2014.966973

Kolvereid, L., &Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment, Journal of Business Venturing, 21(1), 866-885. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2005.06.008

Krković, A., Momirović, K., & Petz, B. (1966). Odabrana poglavlja iz psihometrije i neparametrijske statistike, Društvo psihologa Hrvatske, Zagreb, Croatia.

Łuczka, T., &Rembiasz, M. (2016). Badanie postawprzedsiębiorczychstudentów – wybraneaspektyteoretyczneiempiryczne, HoryzontyWychowania,15(34), 27-47. doi10.17399/HW.2016.153402

McKeever, E., Anderson, A., &Jack, S. (2014). Entrepreneurship and mutuality: Social capital in processes and practices, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 26(5-6), 453-477. doi:10.1080/08985626.2014.939536

McStay, D., (2008).An investigation of undergraduate student self-employment intention and the impact of entrepreneurship education and previous entrepreneurial experience. Doctoral Thesis, Bond University, Robina QLD, Australia.

Nabi, G., Holden, R., &Walmsley, A. (2010). Entrepreneurial intentions among students: towards a re-focused research agenda, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(4), 537-551. doi:10.1108/14626001011088714

Petz, B. (1981).Basic statistical methods for non-mathematicians. SNL, Zagreb.

Shaper, M.,&Volery, T. (2004).Entrepreneurship and small business: A Pacific Rim perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Australia.

Shapero, A., &Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In: Kent, C. A. et al. (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of entrepreneurship, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New York, USA.

Shneor, R., Camgöz, S. M., &Karapinar, P. B. (2013). The interaction between culture and sex in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(9-10), 781-803. doi:10.1080/08985626.2013.862973

Sieger, P., Fueglistaller, U., &Zellweger, T. (2016).Student entrepreneurship 2016: Insights from 50 countries. KMU-HSG/IMU, St. Gallen/Bern, Switzerland. Retrieved from: (March22, 2018)

Stamatović, M., Zakić, N., Marković, Z., &Stamatović, Lj. (2012). Entrepreneurship and self-employment of young people: A study of potential entrepreneurs in Serbia, FactaUniversitatis: Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History, 11(2), 149-164.

Teixeira, A. A. C., &Davey, T. (2008).Attitudes of higher education students to new venture creation: A preliminary approach to the Portuguese case. Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Retrieved from: (March22, 2018)

Tkachev, A., &Kolvereid, L. (1999). Self-employment intentions among Russian students, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development,11(3), 269-280. doi:10.1080/089856299283209

Tretten, P. (2005).Attitudes role in self-employment, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.Retrieved from: (March12, 2018)

Veciana, J. M., Aponte, M., &Urbano, D. (2005). University students’ attitudes towards entrepreneurship: A two countries comparison, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 165–182. doi:10.1007/s11365- 005-1127-5

Venesaar, U., Kolbre, E., &Piliste, T. (2007).Students’ Attitudes and intentions toward entrepreneurship at Tallinn University of Technology, TUTWPE, Tallinn. Retrieved from: (February24, 2018).

World Bank Group (2018).Doing Business 2018. Reforming to Create Jobs. Retrieved from: (May 14, 2019).

World Bank Group (2019).World Development indicators. World Bank Data Catalog.Retrieved from: (May 14, 2019).




How to Cite

Juraćak, J. ., Marković, T., Majewski, E. ., Moravčikova , D. ., & Kokot, Željko. (2022). AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SELF- EMPLOYMENT INTENTIONS AMONG STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES . Economics of Agriculture, 69(1), 91–106.



Original scientific papers

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>