Economics of Agriculture <p><strong>Economics of Agriculture welcomes original articles </strong>from researchers from all over the world to publish problem-oriented and high-quality articles. <strong>Economics of Agriculture </strong>publishes articles from wide variety of economic perspectives that address current and relevant issues related to the agricultural system. Economics of Agriculture especially publish articles of the current trends in the agriculture system.</p> <p>The papers submitted for the evaluation and publication into the Journal ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE have to match, but are not limited to the following topics (decision will be done by Editor in Chief): Agricultural economics, Farm (agricultural companies) management, Agricultural investments, financing and calculations, Agricultural marketing, Organization of plant, livestock and processing industry production, Rural Development, Sustainable agricultural development, Rural (Agro) tourism, Environmental issues from an aspect of agro economy, Trade with agricultural and food products, Agricultural policies and legislative.</p> en-US (Prof. Drago Cvijanovi?) (Prof. Drago Cvijanovi?) Fri, 23 Dec 2022 14:23:35 +0000 OJS 60 STRATEGIC LAND USE MANAGEMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL TRADE-OFFS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ENSURING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES <p>An important condition for the formation of sustainability of agriculture is the ability to achieve environmental trade offs in the process of land use. The purpose of research is development of methodical approaches to formation of strategy of rational land use by means of improvement of administrative activity at microlevel. Authors have formulated concept of strategy of rational use of land, basic principles, elements and sequence of its construction. The structural mechanism of realization of strategy of maintenance of readiness of the personnel to rational use of land, and also bringing material and technical, financial and land resources in strategic conformity for achievement of ecological compromises in the course of conducting agricultural activity is offered. The authors developed a conceptual model of a strategic map of rational land use on the basis of a balanced system of economic and environmental indicators, and proposed directions for its implementation.</p> Alexander A. Dubovitski, Elvira A. Klimentova, Olga I. Averina, Yulia N. Galitskaya, Aleksander A. Tsykora Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DIGITAL TOKEN IN THE BUSINESS FUNCTION OF COOPERATIVES <p>Cooperatives represent relevant and significant economic subjects of associations that promote the interests of their members and work affirmatively to improve their position. Since the digital economy is developing expansively, and new forms of digital technology are changing economic and other interactions every day, cooperatives must keep up with such processes. The authors of the paper analyze the legislative framework for issuing digital tokens in the Republic of Serbia, especially from the aspect of the legal subjectivity of the issuer of this form of digital property. The purpose of the research is to indicate the legislative framework and economic possibilities of issuing digital tokens by cooperatives in the Republic of Serbia. The methodological approach is based on the theoretical analysis of nationally relevant regulations that enable cooperatives to be issuers of digital tokens, while the empirical research shows and analyzes the current practice of issuing digital tokens.</p> Marijana Dukić Mijatović, Ozren Uzelac, Predrag Mirković Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 INCREASING SUSTAINABILITY OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND ENSURING HUMAN HEALTH THROUGH AGRICULTURE DIGITALIZATION <p>Ensuring safe food for a growing population is a challenge for agriculture. The current systems of intensive agriculture are based on important allocations of factors of production per unit area, like chemical fertilizers and pesticides, allocated in order to stimulate production. In doing so, food security is ensured, by obtaining high yields per hectare, but chemical residues may remain in food and human health is jeopardised. The aim of this research is to identify the role of digitalization in agriculture in balancing the binomial food security-organic farming, starting from the premise that smart agriculture has a signifcantly lower negative impact on the environment and human health compared to the conventional agricultural system. The relevance of research lies in raising awareness of the importance of smart agriculture in providing agricultural products obtained in accordance with the principles of sustainable development and moreover integrating it into policies and actions at all levels: individual, local, national and global.</p> Mirela Stoian, Iuliana Dobre, Cristian George Popescu, Marius Cosmin Vasile, Anton- Theodor Dimitriu, Ana Ion Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF A COUNTRY NAME ON CONSUMERS’ PERCEPTION AND ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS WITH PROTECTED DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN <p>The aim of the paper was to show that Serbia has favorable natural conditions (land and climate) for diverse agricultural production (plant- and animal-based), experienced manufacturers, experts and scientists, as well as world-famous selections of numerous plant cultures. Serbia’s major agricultural products are corn, wheat (flour), sunflower (oil and pellets), sugar beet (sugar), soybean (oil and protein products), potatoes, raspberries, apples, plums, sour cherries, grapes, pork, beef and poultry, as well as milk.</p> Sandra Rakić, Marina Bugarčić, Bojana Drašković Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 AGRICULTURAL LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH AND FOOD INSECURITY TRANSITIONS AMONG MAIZE FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN RURAL NIGERIA <p>Agriculture in rural Nigeria is labour-intensive. Thus, the much-desired transition from food insecurity to food security by householdsrequires growth in labour productivity. Labour productivity growth and its effect among other factors on food security transitions of maize farming households in rural Nigeria were assessed. Food insecurity indices were constructed using the second and third waves of data from the General Household Survey Panel (2012 and 2015), and a probabilistic model was specified. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics, Partial factor (labour) productivity, Foster Greer-Thorbecke Model, Markov chain model, Tobit, and Multinomial Logit Regression Models. Labour productivity increased between the two periods although labour productivity growth was very low. Labour productivity growth negatively and significantly affected the transition into food security and being chronically food insecure. Thus, a boost for labour productivity growth should be targeted as a safetynet, especially for the food insecure and households vulnerable to food insecurity.</p> Abimbola Adepoju, Akubuike Obialo Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ONLINE BOOKING ACCOMMODATION IN RURAL TOURISM: AN UTAUT PERSPECTIVE <p>The paper investigates the most important factors that cause tourists to intend or to already use a website for booking accommodation in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia. On a sample of 212 respondents who had previously used websites to book accommodation in rural tourism, using a modified model of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), the impact of four predictor variables (expected impact, expected effort, social impact and facilitation conditions) on the intention of tourists to use, and two independent variables (facilitating conditions and intentions of tourists) on the use of websites for booking accommodation in rural households in Serbia was examined. The SPSS software package was used for data analysis, using descriptive statistics and standard multiple regression. The conducted research indicates that the expected effect and facilitating conditions have a positive influence on the intention of tourists to use websites for booking accommodation, as well as that facilitating conditions and intentions of tourists have a positive impact on the use of websites when booking accommodation.</p> Vladimir Kraguljac, Marijana Seočanac, Vladimir Senić, Darko Dimitrovski Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FACTORS INFLUENCING FARM PROFITABILITY IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA <p>The paper deals with the production and economic indicators of farms in the Republic of Serbia based on data collected from the FADN sample for 2019. The aim of the research is to analyze and evaluate the influence of important factors on profitability of farms of different economic size. According to their economic size, farms are classified into four groups: very small, small-sized, mid-sized and large-sized farms. Factors influencing profitability are grouped into: production management, financial management, human resources management and subsidies and natural factors. The statistical technique used in the paper is a multiple regression model applied to determine statistically significant influence of certain factors on profitability. The results of the research show that equity turnover is the factor with the greatest positive impact on profitability of farms regardless of their economic size. Paid labour has the greatest negative impact on very small, small-sized and mid-sized farms. Further research should focus on analysis of the financial performance of small and medium farms which, based on the available capacities and income, are the main drivers of development of the entire agricultural sector.</p> Veljko Vukoje, Aleksandar Miljatović, Dragana Tekić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 AGRICULTURE IN THE SOUTHWESTERN REGION OF BULGARIA AND ITS IMPACT ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT <p>The aim of the study is to analyze and evaluate the development of agriculture and its impact on rural areas in the Southwest Region. To assess the importance of agriculture in the region and trends in its development, a mixed methodology is used, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. The results and conclusions are based on statistical information from the Ministry of Agriculture and the National Statistical Institute, as well as on expert assessment of specialists from the regional offices of the State Fund “Agriculture” and the National Agricultural Advisory System in the four rural areas. The changes and features of the formed model of agriculture in the Southwest region have been analyzed and evaluated. The emphasis is placed on the processes for reducing the number of small family farms, in their size, on the processes of diversification of activities, on the greening of economic activity, etc.</p> Albena Miteva, Julia Doitchinova Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN ON THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF COMPANIES IN AGRIBUSINESS <p>Changes in the market, caused by globalization, have led to the fact that many companies needed to adapt their operations. In response to these changes, the concept of supply chain was developed to help companies from procurement to sales of products. This paper examines the effects of supply chains on competitiveness using the example of agro-food companies from the Republic of Croatia. The research was conducted through a questionnaire which included 188 agribusiness companies. The responses were systematized and statistically processed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. The results showed that the effects of supply chains play a major role in determining the competitiveness of agro-food companies. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the effects of the supply chain in these companies in order to improve competitiveness and achieve better results of these companies on the market.</p> Adis Puška, Miroslav Nedeljković, Danijela Parojčić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL RAW MATERIALS AND OIL PRICE: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS <p>The motivation of this study is to investigate the relationship between the price of agricultural raw materials and the real exchange rate of the USA and the price of crude oil. For this purpose, annual data from 1990 to 2020 were used. In the study, the cointegration relationship and the elasticity coefficients of the variables were estimated with the help of ARDL bounds test. In addition, the causality relationship was determined with the help of the Granger test. According to the results obtained, it was concluded that there is a cointegration relationship in the models established for agricultural raw materials. In addition, the elasticity coefficient of oil price was found to be positive. According to the Granger causality analysis results, a one way causality relationship from oil price to agricultural raw materials was determined. We present some policy implications based on our findings in this study.</p> Tuncer Govdeli Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC STRUCTURE AND HUMANITY BALANCE IN KÜÇÜNLÜ VILLAGE <p>Küçünlü Village (KV) is a village located in the Thrace Region of Edirne Province. This region is very important for Turkey’s grain and oil sunflower production. In this research, the assumption is set out that “producers in KV cannot do agriculture at the size of an economic enterprise”. With this assumption, it has been resolved by considering the size of the land where the communities in the village cultivate agricultural activities between the years 2012- 2022. The subject has been discussed with explanatory research and historical structuralist approach model. The fnding that the desired increase in the total land assets of the producers still continuing production could not be achieved, that the producers are moving away from the active working age range in agriculture day by day, and that sustainable agriculture cannot be achieved in the future has been obtained through observation, structured personal interviews and survey methods.</p> Muaffak Sarioğlu, Ebru Irmak Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL GREEN MARKETING ON MANAGERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIZATIONS OF THE AGRIBUSINESS SECTOR IN SERBIA <p>The purpose of the paper was to examine the impact of internal green marketing on managers’ organizational identification and the financial performance of the organizations. The empirical research was carried out by an online survey. The model proposed in this paper was tested on a sample of 53 managers of Serbian organizations in the agribusiness sector. For empirical testing of the proposed hypotheses, partial least squares structural equation modeling was used. The findings revealed that the direct effect of internal green marketing on managers’ organizational identification as well as the direct effect of managers’ organizational identification on financial performance is positive and statistically significant. Managers’ organizational identification fully mediates the relationship between internal green marketing and financial performance. This paper can contribute to better understanding of green internal marketing and its effect on organizations, especially in the agribusiness sector. The results can be useful to managers in the agribusiness sector.</p> Vesna Milanović, Andrea Bučalina Matić, Ana Jurčić, Vesna Miletić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ENHANCING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SMALL FARMERS IN CROATIA THROUGH THE AGRICULTURAL FUND FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT <p>Since 2015, investment subsidies from the EAFRD through the Rural Development Program have been available to farmers in Croatia. The most numerous holdings in Croatia are those with an economic size of up to 8,000 euros, characterized by a low level of productivity due to insufficient production capacity and inadequate machinery They are the intended aid recipients in the sub-measure 6.3. In the three tenders held so far, this sub-measure has been mostly used for the purchase of machinery (62% of all users), which most often includes old tractors inadequate for modern agricultural production. The increase in production capacity with the growth of the Standard Output was used by only 38% of sub-measure users , with a slightly higher share of young farmers and those working in flower production. The conclusion of the paper is that in order to increase the productivity of small farmers, it is necessary to redefine the criteria for approving applications in sub-measure 6.3 in a way that preference is given to farmers committing to activities that will increase their production capacity and Standard Output.</p> Lari Hadelan, Marija Zrilić, Mateja Jež Rogelj, Magdalena Zrakić Sušac Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ENSURING THE IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH THE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT <p>Human resources are one of the driving forces and main determinants of agricultural competitiveness, contributing to its improvement through properly formed and constantly renewed knowledge and skill enhancement of agricultural workers. In the context of scarce natural resources, demographic changes, need for more intensive agricultural production based on modern technology, human resource development in agriculture becomes imperative. The aim of the research is to assess the human resources in agriculture of Serbia through the prism of data available in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and World Bank. The research results show fluctuations in the rural population and employees in agriculture in the analysed period, confirming their negative trend and predicting further decrease based on the forecast method. In order to overcome limitations related to the number and qualifications of agricultural employees, the special focus has been given to the formal and informal education of workers in agriculture, ensuring their capability to respond to market needs and future challenges.</p> Jelena Dimovski, Bojan Krstić, Vladimir Radivojević Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHIVING DOCUMENTATION AND ASSESSMENT QUALITY OF ARCHIVING FINANCIAL DOCUMENTATION GIVEN BY TOP MANAGERS <p>The company’s top management uses innovative methods in making management decisions in companies, which can be used to improve the overall business. This author’s study was focused on discovering the importance of document archiving, especially if the electronic movement of documents is applied in the company. The conclusion reached by the authors of the study is that there is a strong correlation between the standard and innovative forms of document archiving (control has been established in the company). The author’s next conclusion would be that in the business of companies that have introduced financial management and control, electronic movement of documents is basically taking place. In companies that have not introduced the mentioned form of control, the classic flow of documentation dominates. The last conclusion would be that the highest level of security in archiving is achieved in companies that have introduced electronic archiving.</p> Sonja Tomaš-Miskin, Jelena Vitomir, Miloš Dragosavac, Nikola Medan, Milan Radaković, Goran Vitomir, Tatjana Davidov, Slobodan Popović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND THE ECONOMIC RESULTS OF AGRICULTURE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has brought numerous economic challenges to countries around the world. The specificities of certain economy sectors determined the character and intensity of the impact of this health crisis on their results. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the impact that the Covid-19 pandemic has had on the economic results of agriculture in the European Union countries. Comparative analysis and cluster analysis are used in the research. The general conclusion of the paper is that the Covid-19 pandemic did not change the economic importance and role of agriculture in the individual European Union countries. In addition, the European Union countries differ significantly according to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the contribution of agriculture to gross domestic product, while a significant difference between the countries has not been determined according to the impact of the pandemic on the contribution of agriculture to employment.</p> Tanja Stanišić, Sonja Lazarević, Nemanja Pantić, Miljan Leković Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFICIENCY OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT IN BULGARIA <p>Environmental challenges related to water resources lead to a change in water distribution. This will cause a change in water infrastructure which will need financial support. This article proposes an analysis of the efficiency of financial support for water infrastructure improvement in Bulgaria. The aim of the article is to describe state of the population’s access to water infrastructure and financial support for the development of the water infrastructure and based on the statistical data to analyze the effectiveness of the financial support under OPE 2007-2013 and OPE 2014-2020, axis Water for the development of water infrastructure. The parts of the article are as follows: 1) Introduction, presenting the theoretical views on the financing for the improvement of the water infrastructure; 2) Research methodology 3) Analysis of the effectiveness of financial support for the development of water infrastructure (correlation and DEA analysis); 4) General conclusions.</p> Zornitsa Dimova Stoyanova Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The APPLICATION OF THE PERT METHOD IN THE AUDIT OF BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES <p>The audit of agribusiness operations is present in companies with significant agricultural potential, which can be accepted as justified in our conditions. The agricultural sector is one of the development sectors in the Republic of Serbia, which necessarily represents a significant economic resource, and therefore the object of business audit. The factors of modern audit-based processes are conditioned by the complexity and subject specificities of the object being audited, which is expressed in the conditions of the agricultural sector. This paper will present the application of a quantitative planning method that is widely used in complex processes, and which can also be applied in the auditing processes of agricultural enterprises.</p> Ivan Milojević, Dalibor Krstić, Aleksandar Jovičić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 APPLICATION OF HOLISTIC MARKETING IN THE FORMULATION OF A BUSINESS CONCEPT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS FROM SOUTH SERBIA <p>The purpose of this paper is to analyze business concept of agricultural producers in Serbia and to show the necessity to define a new concept based on a holistic marketing approach. The components of holistic marketing are viewed from the standpoint of small scale fresh food producers in Serbia as economic entities. Analysis of current business situation, position of Serbian agricultural producers in agri-food supply chain and problems which they are facing are defined. Results of the analysis show the existing business orientation of producers and reveal their views regarding future business orientation. A presented solution to overcome the existing problems includes modernization of business by using combination of holistic marketing elements to create business concept which will provide conditions for improving competitiveness of agricultural producers. The conclusion has indicated the necessity of a new marketing approach for small scale producers in order to meet the challenges of modern business.</p> Toma Dašić, Svetlana Mihić, Miodrag Šmelcerović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000