Economics of Agriculture <p><strong>Economics of Agriculture welcomes original articles </strong>from researchers from all over the world to publish problem-oriented and high-quality articles. <strong>Economics of Agriculture </strong>publishes articles from wide variety of economic perspectives that address current and relevant issues related to the agricultural system. Economics of Agriculture especially publish articles of the current trends in the agriculture system.</p> <p>The papers submitted for the evaluation and publication into the Journal ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE have to match, but are not limited to the following topics (decision will be done by Editor in Chief): Agricultural economics, Farm (agricultural companies) management, Agricultural investments, financing and calculations, Agricultural marketing, Organization of plant, livestock and processing industry production, Rural Development, Sustainable agricultural development, Rural (Agro) tourism, Environmental issues from an aspect of agro economy, Trade with agricultural and food products, Agricultural policies and legislative.</p> The Balkan Scientifc Association of Agrarian Economists, Belgrade, Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade, (Serbia), Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest (Romania) en-US Economics of Agriculture 0352-3462 MULTICRITERIA APPROACH TO RURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the current state of rural tourism in Republic of Srpska as well as to provide guidance and recommendations for the development of this form of tourism. The used model approach expert opinion and, on this occasion, the DEX method of multicriteria decision-making was used. With this model, an assessment of rural tourist capacities is carried out on a random sample of four tourist facilities. The reason for the results obtained in this way is that the observed facilities have adequately used the natural resources available to Republic of Srpska. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are given in order to further develop this type of tourism in Republic of Srpska. The presented model offers an innovative approach in the assessment of current and potential tourist facilities. For this reason, it should be used in future research.</p> Miroslav Nedeljković Adis Puška Svetozar Krstić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 13 26 10.5937/ekoPolj2201013N MOTIVES FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS IN SERBIA WITH PARTICULAR ACCENT ON BEEKEEPERS: THE APPLICATION OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION <p>The aim of this paper is to explore the motives of Serbian farmers for introducing innovations from the aspect of Rogers` main attributes of innovations. The outcomes of the applied method of binary logistic regression show that these agricultural producers are not so much driven by personal motives in introducing innovations, especially not by their observability and compatibility with farmers` adopted values. The findings also point out that there are impulses and desires of Serbian farmers for introducing innovations, but that the still unfavourable and uncertain market environment hinders them. Since there is no economic progress without innovations and technological progress, the state should provide them with a favourable environment by actively investing in appropriate legal, financial, rural, corporate, educational, and research infrastructure. In addition, it is necessary for farmers to adopt the principles of market orientation and entrepreneurial activities that would help them to increase their productivity, innovations and competitiveness.</p> Lidija Madžar Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 27 41 10.5937/ekoPolj2201027M AWARENESS OF THE POPULATION IN RURAL REGIONS OF SERBIA ABOUT RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES <p>Public awareness about renewable sources can contribute to social acceptance of sustainable development projects. The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes and level of awareness of the population of rural regions of Serbia about renewable energy sources. The research method included the random sampling of 400+ respondents in Southern, Eastern and Central Serbia. A questionnaire with closed-ended questions for expressing attitudes (Likert scale) was used. Collected data have been analyzed with SPSS. The results of this study clearly show that the citizens of rural regions of Serbia are relatively poorly informed not only of general aspects of energy production and consumption, but of specific aspects related to the use of renewable energy sources. This investigation emphasizes the need for intensive public information campaign about the advantages and benefits of renewable energy in order to have broader public support for the implementation of this form of energy into energy sector of Serbia.</p> Srđan Žikić Dragana Trifunović Goran Lalić Mihailo Jovanović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 43 56 10.5937/ekoPolj2201043Z MARKET OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PRODUCTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA: POSSIBILITIES AND IMPLICATIONS <p>The main topic is Serbian agro-food potential. Serbia possesses exceptional natural resources having in mind it is located in the most favourable region of the north latitude. If this potential is used in an optimal measure, it would bring exceptional results. According to agriculture census in 2018 in Serbia there was registered 628.552 family agricultural farms, and 562 896 are family households. By adequate strategic planning, agriculture can provide a significant contribution to the economic development of a country. Agriculture encourages employment, takes a significant part in foreign trade, provides food security for citizens, contributes to the rural development and ecological balance. Therefore, it affects the development of entire country by being related to different sectors.</p> Dejan Dašić Tijana Stanić Dragan Živković Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 57 74 10.5937/ekoPolj2201057D RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY ON AREAS WITH NATURAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA <p>The aim of the research is to present the main challenges of Serbian agricultural policy towards areas with natural constraints in terms of delimitation, available measures and budgetary support. The methodological framework includes: descriptive statistics of areas with natural constraints, a qualitative analysis of strategic and programming documents and a quantitative analysis of budgetary transfers to agriculture. The results have revealed that a significant share of agricultural resources are concentrated in the areas with natural constraints, but, despite this fact, there is no specific measure for farms located in these areas. The implemented support measures are more oriented towards economic aspects, while other aspects such as promotion of sustainable farming practices and maintenance of the countryside are neglected. The Serbian policy towards areas with natural constraints needs to be more harmonized with the European policy (in terms of delimitation and support), and tailored to the specific needs of farmers in these areas.</p> Ružica Papić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 75 89 10.5937/ekoPolj2201075P AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SELF- EMPLOYMENT INTENTIONS AMONG STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES <p>In this study, we investigated the dependence of self employment intention (SEINT) level in agricultural students from Croatia, Poland, Slovakia and Serbia on selected personal traits and country macroeconomic indicators. The results show that the SEINT level depends on student’s perceived desirability of self-employment and perceived self-effcacy. Previous experience with entrepreneurship also affects SEINT. In terms of macroeconomic indicators, higher GDP per capita has been shown to have a positive effect on SEINT, while unfavorable conditions of starting a business have a negative impact.</p> <p>Students from Novi Sad (Serbia) showed higher average SEINT level compared to students from Croatia (Zagreb) and Slovakia (Nitra).</p> Josip Juraćak Todor Marković Edward Majewski Danka Moravčikova Željko Kokot Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 91 106 10.5937/ekoPolj2201091J A SHORT REVIEW ON EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT PRICE INDICES DURING 2008-2017: ARE THERE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES? <p>The evolution of the indices of the outputs of the production processes in agriculture could be considered proactive markers in understanding the effectiveness of the agricultural policies implementation and the functionality of the European Agricultural Model. The main aim of the research is centered on the analyzing the evolution of the European developments, in agricultural output price indices during 208-2017, from the Romanian perspective. The main fndings describe the long-term changes regarding the evolution of the agricultural sector in the analyzed countries.</p> Iuliana Denisa Rădulescu Jean Vasile Andrei Luminiţa Chivu Vasilii Erokhin Tianming Gao Dumitru Nancu Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 107 117 10.5937/ekoPolj2201107R USE OF PERT (PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE) AND PDM (PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMING METHOD) IN ORGANIZING MODERN VEGETABLE SEEDLING PRODUCTION <p>Propagation of quality vegetable seedlings is a key of successful vegetable production in an open field and in protected areas. The research is aimed at the production process itself, analyzing it from technological and organizational aspects. Based on a detail calculation of time, means and costs, the researchers obtained the duration of production in days, regarding the propagation of pepper, tomato, cabbage and lettuce seedlings, taking into consideration different technological requirements of crops, ripening time, delivery time and an optimal use of the propagation area. The use of the Program Evaluation and Review Technique required more attention when making a production plan, resulting in the introduction of activities, the realization of which required only the flow of time to harmonize the monitoring of real activities. By using the Precedence Diagramming Method this problem was overcome with predefining the type of relationship between the interdependent activities (Finish-to-Start, Finish-to-Finish, Start-to-Start, and Start-to-Finish).</p> Nikola Ljiljanić Zoran Rajić Tamara Paunović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 119 131 10.5937/ekoPolj2201119L DIGITAL AGRICULTURE - THE CASE OF AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA <p>Agriculture as a crucial economic sector has changed rapidly in the last few decades, more than in previous centuries, because of technological achievements that opened a niche in the international agricultural sector known as digital agriculture. The conception of digital agriculture in practice and consequences on agricultural productivity is a way to response to significant climate changes. The evaluation of the current circumstances is made through the cases of digital agricultural companies in Vojvodina which could help and enhance regional economic growth. This study has utilized a case study method to evaluate the present conditions of digital agriculture appliances in Vojvodina. The results of the research will be a case study analysis of the companies using and developing digital agriculture technologies in the agricultural sector, as well as the presentation of potentials in this niche - digital agricultural sector in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The authors of the paper consider the suggested model in this sector a vehicle that could run not only the economic growth in Vojvodina and Serbia, but also the regional economic growth.</p> Simonida Vukadinovic Jelena Slavko Jesic Andrea Okanovic Ivan Lovre Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 133 145 10.5937/ekoPolj2201133V NEW TECHNOLOGIES AS A DRIVER OF CHANGE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR <p>Faced with a demographic boom, enormous urbanization and a lack of agricultural land, traditional agricultural production is losing pace with new needs and demands. Due to the increased demand for food, efforts are being made to develop technologies that would improve production, with the sustainable use of existing resources. Solving this challenge is possible by introducing Internet of Things technologies, satellite navigation, mobile communications and ubiquitous computing, which is called smart agriculture. The main goals of smart agriculture are to increase yields (provide information needed to analyze and make decisions that will maximize yields), efficient water use, more efficient agricultural operations (automation of daily activities, real-time monitoring, advanced analytics, daily and seasonal forecasting), cooperation with suppliers and public administration are more efficient and take place in real time). This article highlights the potential of the Internet of Things, big data and drones in agriculture, as well as the challenges of applying these technologies in relation to traditional agricultural practices.</p> Vlado Nikola Radic Nikola Vlado Radić Vladan Dušan Cogoljević Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 147 162 10.5937/ekoPolj2201147R COMPARATIVE ANALYSE OF FOODSTUFF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS IN THE WESTERN BALKANS <p>The aim of this paper is to determine the current situation in the field of geographical indications schemes (GI), obstacles for futures development and to provide recommendations for GIs development in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. GIs quality schemes provide confirmation to consumers that foodstuff is a traditional product produced in a certain area and with certain attributes. Although the Western Balkan countries are reach in well-known traditional products and have excellent ago-ecological conditions for GIs production, this quality schemes are not developed. In this paper are applied comparative methodology, literature review and field research. Results are showing that path to improvement GIs is in the further legal framework harmonization with EU legal framework, providing flexibility for registration of the GIs foodstuff processing capacities, support to the producer’s organization, shifting of the national GIs recognition to the EU, systematic support to the GIs etc.</p> Vlado Kovačević Dragan Brenjo Slobodan Cvetković Ljiljana Rajnović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 163 178 10.5937/ekoPolj2201163K IMPROVING THE MARKETING POTENTIAL OF RURAL AREA THROUGH THE CULTIVATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL HEMP <p>In presently, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) represents a controversial plant that is not researched enough. The aim of the study presented in this paper is to show that marketing of the rural areas can be done through the cultivation of industrial hemp. Hemp has a huge marketing potential which can be a tool of rural development in Serbia. Concrete results are given from the point of the view of three groups: people who reside in cities, owners of healthy food markets and producers. The author presented survey research which shows that the majority of people are not well educated about the difference between marijuana and industrial hemp. There is a common opinion that the production of industrial hemp itself is an advertisement of a rural area. The contribution and significance of herein presented results lies in the marketing of underdeveloped rural areas, redevelopment of cultivation of sidelined agricultural crops in order to strengthen the rural area.</p> Nemanja Brkljača Svetlana Mihić Boško Umetić Dejan Supić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 179 193 10.5937/ekoPolj2201179B BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE <p>The use of RESs reduces the emission of gases and hazardous materials into the atmosphere, which has an impact on the improvement of the quality of the environment. The use of biomass, especially that from municipal waste and agriculture, reduces the need for importing energy sources. Energy production from RES is a fast-growing economy branch employing a significant workforce.</p> <p>Of 5.6 Mtoe of the total annual usable technical potential of the RES in Serbia, 1.96 Mtoe (i.e. 35%) is used up, whereas only 1.1 Mtoe (i.e. 32%) is used up of 3.4 Mtoe of the total biomass.</p> <p>The paper is aimed at indicating the significance of the production of renewable energy from biomass, the available quantities, the structure and the advantages of using it in the future development of the energy sector. Some states, Serbia included, have prescribed stimuli to green energy kW delivered to power distribution enterprises.</p> Simo Veljko Stevanovic Snezana M. Stevanovic Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 195 209 10.5937/ekoPolj2201195S SERBIAN WINE PRODUCERS’ PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: A NETNOGRAPHIC BASELINE STUDY OF WINE INDUSTRY IN SERBIA <p>The paper presents the wine production performance in the Republic of Serbia. The research adopts quantitative and qualitative methods, using a relatively novel method, netnography, which involves the observation and analysis of specific social groups or occurrences in the digital world using search engines as the primary source of data gathering. Key factors identified in the study are land, labor, capital and factors supply and demand. Goal of this research is, through the analysis of before mentioned factors, to evaluate wine production of Serbian wine producers. The paper also examines current conditions and possibilities of grape growing and wine making in the Republic of Serbia.</p> Uroš Valčić Vlade Zarić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 211 225 10.5937/ekoPolj2201211V COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRI-FOOD EXPORTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA IN THE COVID-19 CONDITIONS <p>The research aims to determine the intensity and direction of the impact of the global health and economic crisis from 2020 on the export competitiveness of the agri-food sector of the Republic of Serbia. Empirical study shows that there was an increase in the importance of exports of agri-food products in the crisis year 2020 according to all analysed indicators (net exports index, index of contribution to trade balance, relative coverage of imports by exports, unit values of exports). This confirms the hypothesis that this sector has exceptional resilience to crisis events. Moreover, net exports of these products increased significantly in 2020 compared to 2019 as a pre-crisis year. Therefore, the agri-food sector of the Republic of Serbia plays an important role in periods of such a crisis caused by non-economic factors, because it can compensate for the decline in exports and gross value added of other sectors.</p> Milan Marković Bojan Krstić Slavica Popović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 227 239 10.5937/ekoPolj2201227M RURAL TOURISM OF EASTERN SERBIA – HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION <p>Depending on the existence and dominance of a resource in a certain rural area, different forms of rural tourism can be developed. Human resources are the most important factor in all forms of tourism business, including rural tourism. The subject of this paper is a survey of employee satisfaction in rural tourism, in Eastern Serbia - in the villages of the Timok region. The authors aimed to highlight the most important motivating factors of employees in smaller rural households. The technique of survey questionnaires was applied, while the obtained data were processed by the appropriate statistical method. The paper represents a modest contribution to the research of human resources motivation in the field of rural tourism, but the results obtained by the research can be recommendations to the general managers of rural households, in which way to best motivate their employees.</p> Biljana Ilić Gordana P. Đukić Miloš Nikolić Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 241 255 10.5937/ekoPolj2201241I EXPORT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS FROM SERBIA TO THE EU - PANEL GRAVITY MODEL <p>This paper will analyse the export of agricultural products of Serbia to the EU during the period from 2001 to 2017. A panel gravity model was used to assess the effects of trade flows. The main advantage of the gravity model is the application of basic indicators of the economy and the ability to evaluate panel series. The obtained results show that the size of the economy, measured by gross domestic product, the size of the market of foreign trade partners, measured by population, and the distance between trading partner countries, have measurable effects on the export of agricultural products from Serbia to the EU. Using a simple econometric model, we analysed the effects of Serbia’s international trade and noticed that there is significant room for improving the exchange between Serbia and EU members. A multi-variable model would provide more information to trade policy makers.</p> Vladimir M. Ristanović Aleksandra Tošović Stevanović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 257 268 10.5937/ekoPolj2201257R TRANSITION FROM CONVENTIONAL TO AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, CASE STUDY OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA <p>The main objective of the research is to analyze the possibility of introducing the agro-ecological concept through appropriate agro-ecological measures in agricultural policy of Bosnia and Hercegovina. For this purpose, theoretical and empirical studies have been conducted. Theoretical research included analysis of the strategic and regulatory framework in the European Union and Bosnia and Hercegovina and analysis of the development of the concept of agro ecology. Empirical research has included surveying holders of agricultural holdings of subjects according to the Eco Stack project methodology. The survey results confirm that farmers are generally not familiar with the concept of agro ecology, but do apply some of the agro-environmental measures. On the basis of the research results, steps have been proposed to introduce a new model of support for the application of the agro-environmental concept and measures in the framework of agricultural policy of Bosnia and Hercegovina.</p> Gvozden Mićić Gordana Rokvić Gordana Đurić Dimitrije Marković Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 269 279 10.5937/ekoPolj2201269M ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC AND LEGAL TREATMENT OF PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS WITH REFERENCE TO THE MOST SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS OF THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT <p>One of the main goals of the normative approach in the field of tourism development is a sustainable concept in tourism development. In this context, it is very interesting to look at the essence of the scientific and legal treatment of protected areas and the impact of tourism on the environment. The subject of analysis in the paper in the theoretical part was the relevant conceptual framework, and a brief elaboration of the scientific approach in the study of the characteristics and significance of tourism, natural values, protected natural assets, and protected areas in Serbia. In the research part of the paper, the subject of analysis was the legal treatment of protected areas, as well as the analysis of the impact of tourism on the environment, mostly determined by the network of primary and secondary impacts of tourism activities on elements and parameters of environmental quality. The purpose is to see the importance of protection and preservation of protected areas, and the pressures that the environment suffers due to tourism development, to emphasize the importance of timely understanding and assessment of the type and scope of impact of tourist activities on destination resources.</p> Bojana Drašković Olga Perović Copyright (c) 2022 Economics of Agriculture 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 69 1 281 294 10.5937/ekoPolj2201281D