EXPLORING FARMERS’ SEASONAL AND FULL YEAR ADOPTION OF STALL FEEDING OF LIVESTOCK IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

  • Muuz Hadush, Ph.D. student Norwegian University of Life Science, Department of Economics

Abstract

Adoption of stall feeding (SF) of livestock was assessed in northern Ethiopia based on a household survey conducted in 2015. The study covered 21 communities in Tigrai to account for differences in agroecology. The purpose of this study was to understand the driving factors of full or seasonal SF adoption and its intensity. A Heckman selection model was used to estimate adoption and extent of adoption based on a model of technology adoption within an agricultural household framework, and Poisson Model for explaining the number of SF adopting seasons. The descriptive results indicate that 36% of the farmers were actually practicing SF in a full year whereas 55.6% were seasonal adopters in the study area. Empirical results of this study showed that our result is in favor of the Boserupian hypothesis indicating that small grazing land and large exclosure are associated with a higher probability of use of SF and with a higher number of SF adopting seasons. In a similar vein, small average village farm size stimulated SF adoption and adopting seasons, Availability of labor and a number of breed cows signifcantly increased the probability of using SF by 0.01% and 66% respectively. While animal shock had a marginal effect of 14%, factors such as access to information and early exposure increased SF adoption by about 18% and 6%. Similarly, the positive marginal effect of real milk price is 15%. However, SF appears to be less attractive to those farmers with more herd size and less crop residue.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Ahmed, M. A., Ehui, S., Assefa, Y. (2004): Dairy development in Ethiopia, Intl Food
Policy Res Inst.
2. Amudavi, D.M., Khan, Z.R., Wanyama, J.M., Midega, C.A.O., Pittchar, J., Hassanali,
A., Pickett, J.A. (2009): Evaluation of farmers’ feld days as a dissemination tool for Push–
Pull technology in Western Kenya, Crop Protection, No. 28, pp. 987–996.
3. Babulo, B., Muys, B., Fredu, N., Tollens, E., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Mathijs, E.
(2009): The economic contribution of forest resource uses to rural livelihoods in Tigray,
Northern Ethiopia, Forest Policy and Economics, No. 11, pp. 109–117.
4. Baltenweck, I., Mubiru, S., Nanyeenya, W., Njoroge, L., Halberg, N., Romney, D.,
Staal, S. (2007): Dairy Farming in Uganda: Production Effciency and Soil Management
Strategies under Different Farming Systems, ILRI Research Report 1. International Livestock
Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
5. Benin, S. (2006): Policies and programs affecting land management practices, input
use, and productivity in the highlands of Amhara region Ethiopia, In: Pender, J., Place, F.,
Ehui, S. (Eds.), Strategies for Sustainable Land Management in the East African Highlands.
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 217–256.
6. Beshir, H. (2014): Factors affecting the adoption and intensity of use of improved
forages in North East Highlands of Ethiopia, American Journal of Experimental Agriculture,
Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 12-27.
7. Bezabih, M., Sarr, M. (2012): Risk preferences and environmental uncertainty:
Implications for crop diversifcation decisions in Ethiopia, Environmental and Resource
Economics, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 483-505.
8. BoARD (2012): Effect of Free Grazing on Natural Resource Management, in Tigray
Region, Bureau of agriculture Natural resource development protection and utilization core
process, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
9. Boserup, E. (1965): Conditions of Agricultural Growth, Aldine Publications,
Chicago.
10. FDRE (2011): Ethiopia’s Climate-Resilient Green Economy, Green Economy
Strategy, Addis Ababa: CRGE
11. Conley, T. G., Udry, C. R. (2010): Learning about a New Technology: Pineapple in
Ghana. American Economic Review, Vol. 100, No. 1, pp. 35-69.
12. De Cao, E., van den Berg, M. M., Tile, C. Y., Wondwosen, T. (2013): The effects
of zero grazing in Ethiopia, In Proceedings of the CSAE Conference 2013: Economic
Development in Africa, pp. 1-15.
13. De Janvry, A., Fafchamps, M., Sadoulet, E. (1991): Peasant Household Behaviour
with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained, The Economic Journal, Vol. 101, Issue,
409, pp. 1400-1417.
14. De Graaff, J., Kessler, A., Olsen, P. (2010): Farm-level adoption of soil and water conservation measures and policy implications in Europe, Land Use Policy No. 27, pp. 1-3.
15. Diao, X., Nin-Pratt, A. (2007): Growth options and poverty reduction in Ethiopia
—an economy-wide model analysis, Food Policy Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 205–228.
16. Edmeades, S. (2003):Variety Choice and Attribute Trade-Offs Within the Framework
of Agricultural Household Models: The Case of Bananas in Uganda, A Ph.D. Dissertation,
North Carolina State University.
17. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2009): Production
yearbook, FAO, Rome, Italy http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx.
18. Feder, G., Slade, R. (1984): The Acquisition of Information and the Adoption of New
Technology, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 66, No. 3, pp. 312-320.
19. Feder, G., Just, R., Zilberman, D. (1985): Adoption of agricultural innovations in
developing countries: a survey, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 33, pp.
255–298.
20. Feder, G., Umali, D. (1993): The Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Review,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, No. 43, pp. 215-239.
21. Fufa, B. Hassan, R.M. (2006): Determinants of fertilizer use on maize in Eastern
Ethiopia: A weighted Endogenous sampling analysis of the extent and intensity of adoption,
Agrekon, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 38-49.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5150(99)00028-6.
22. Foltz, J., Lang, G. (2003): The adoption and impact of management-intensive
rotational grazing (MIRG) on Connecticut dairy farms, Renewable agriculture and food
Systems, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 261–266.
23. Fuente, S., Negesse, T., Legesse, G. (2009): Feed Resources and Their Management
Systems in Ethiopian Highlands: The Case of Umbulo Whaco Watershed In Southern
Ethiopia, Tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 47-56.
24. Gass, G.M., Sumberg J.E. (1993): Intensifcation of livestock production in Africa:
Experience and issues, Draft. Norwich: University of East Anglia.
25. Garcia, O., Balikowa, D., Kiconco, D., Ndambi, A., Hemme, T. (2008): Milk
Production in Uganda: Dairy Farming Economics and Development Policy Impacts, IGAD
LPI, Working Paper No. 09-08.
26. Gebremedhin, B., Ahmed, M. M., Ehui, S. K. (2003): Determinants of adoption of
improved forage technologies in Crop-livestock mixed systems: Evidence from the highlands
of Ethiopia.
27. Gebremedhin, B., Hirpa, A., Berhe, K. (2009): Feed marketing in Ethiopia: Results
of rapid market appraisal (No. 15). Full text by ILRI.
28. Greene, W.H. (2008): Econometric Analysis, 6th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
29. Gunte, K. E. (2015): Understanding factors affecting technology adoption in
smallholder livestock production systems in Ethiopia: the role o farm resources and the
enabling environment (Doctoral dissertation, Wageningen: Wageningen University).
30. Hall, B.H. (1994): Time Series Processor Version 4.3 Reference Manual, TSP International, Palo Alto, CA.
31. Hogset, H. (2005): Social Networks and Technology Adoption, Selected Paper,
AAEA Annual Meetings, July 2005 Providence, RI.
32. Holden, S., Shiferaw, B. (2004): Land degradation, drought and food security
in a less favored area in the Ethiopian highlands: a bioeconomic model with market
imperfections, Agricultural Economics, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 31-49.
33. Holtland, G. (2007): The uneasy relationship between science and development,
(May).
34. IFAD (2007): Livestock and range lands; livestock feeding, URL http://www.ifad.
org/lrkm/theme/production/feeding.htm.
35. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) (2000): Policy for Sustainable
Land Management in the Highlands of Ethiopia, May 22-23, 2000. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
20p.
36. Isham, J. T. (2000): A model of Technology Adoption with Social Capital, A Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Maryland.
37. Kaaya, H., Bashaasha, B., Mutetikka, D. (2005): Determinants of utilization of
artifcial insemination (AI) services among Ugandan dairy farmers, African crop science
conference proceedings, No. 7, pp. 561-567.
38. Kaliba, A. R., Featherstone, A. M., Norman, D. W. (1997): A stall-feeding
management for improved cattle in semi-arid central Tanzania: factors influencing adoption,
Agricultural Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 133-146.
39. Kirui, O. K., Mirzabaev, A. (2014): Economics of land degradation in Eastern Africa
(No. 128), ZEF Working Paper Series.
40. Klitzing, A., Das, A., Bonzi, M., Barro A., Langkamp, U., Dereje, K., Pale, S.,
Nayak, S., Gupta, A. (2014): Promoting Best Practice in Agriculture: Examples from Burkina
Faso, Ethiopia, India and Europe, Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e.V., Friedrich-Ebert-Straße 1,
53173 Bonn.
41. Kruseman, G., Ruben, R., Tesfay, G. (2006): Village stratifcation for policy analysis:
multiple development domains in the Ethiopian highlands of Tigray, In: Pender, J., Place, F.,
Ehui, S. (Eds.), Strategies for Sustainable Land Management in the East African Highlands.
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 81–106.
42. Lal, R., Stewart, B. A. (2010): Food security and soil quality, Advances in soil
science.
43. Lenaerts, L. (2013):Insights into Agency and Social Interactions in Natural Resource
Management (Doctoral Dissertation, Wageningen University).
44. Long, F. (2003): Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using
Stata, Revised Edition,
45. Marra, M., Pannell, D.J., Abadi Ghadim, A. (2003): The economics of risk,
uncertainty, and learning in the adoption of new agricultural technologies: Where are we on the learning curve? Agricultural Systems Vol. 75, No. 2-3, pp. 215-234.
46. McFadden, D. (1981): Econometric models of probabilistic choice. In: Minsk, C.F.,
McFadden, D. (Eds.), Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications,
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 198-272.
47. Mcintire, J., Debrah, S. (1987): Forage research in smallholder and pastoral
production systems, In: Little, D.A., and Said, A.N. (eds) Proceedings of a workshop held at
Ryall’s Hotel, Blantyre, Malawi in September 1986. pp. 118–126. [International Livestock
Centre for Africa (ILCA): Addis Ababa, Ethiopia].
48. Mekuria, W., Veldkamp, E., Tilahun, M., Olschewski, R. (2011): Economic valuation
of land restoration: The case of exclosures established on communal grazing lands in Tigray,
Ethiopia, Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 334-344.
49. Misra, S.K., Carley, D.H., Fletcher, S.M. (1993): Factors influencing southern dairy
farmer’s choice of milk handlers, J. Agric Appl. Econ. 25 (July), pp. 197-207.
50. Mugisha, J., Ngambeki, D. (1994): Marketing System of the Uganda Banana
Industry, African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, No. 1, pp. 384-387.
51. Musaba, E.C. (2010): Analysis of factors influencing adoption of cattle management
technologies by communal farmers in Northern Namibia, Livestock Research for Rural
Development. Volume 22, Article #104. Retrieved December 12, 2015, from http://www.
lrrd.org/lrrd22/6/musa22104.htm
52. Nalunkuuma, J., Affognon, H., Kingori, S., Salifu, D., Njonge, F. (2013): Adoption
of zero grazing and impact on livestock keepers’ knowledge of cattle reproductive parameters
in Western Kenya, In African Crop Science Conference Proceedings (Vol. 11, pp. 599-604).
53. Negassa, A., Rashid, S., Gebremedhin, B., Kennedy, A. (2012): Chap. 6 “Livestock
Production and Marketing” in Food and Agriculture in Ethiopia, Progress and Policy
Challenges. Paul Dorosh and Shahidur Rashid Editors. PENN Press.
54. Nyssen, J., Descheemaeker, K., Nigussie Haregeweyn, M. H., Deckers, J., Poesen, J.
(2007):Lessons learned from 10 years research on soil erosion and soil and water conservation
in Tigray, Tigray Livelihood Papers No. 7, Mekelle: Zala-Date Project, Mekelle University,
KU Leuven, Relief Society of Tigrai, Africa museum and Tigrai Bureau of Agriculture and
Rural Development, 53 p. ISBN 978-90-8826-027-8.
55. Pender, J., Kerr, J. (1996): Determinants of farmer’s indigenous soil and water
conservation investments in India’s semi-arid tropics, EPTD Discussion Paper No. 17.
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington Dc.
56. Pender, J., Place, F., Ehui, S. (2006): Strategies for Sustainable Land Management
in the East African Highlands, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
57. Odame, H, Kimenye, L, Kabutha, C, Alemu, D., Oduori, L.H. (2013): Why the low
adoption of agricultural technologies in Eastern and Central Africa?ASARECA (Association
for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa), Entebbe.
58. Omamo, S.W., Diao, X., Wood, S., Chamberlin, J., You, L., Benin, S.,Wood-Sichra,
U., Tatwangire, A. (2006): Strategic Priorities for Agricultural Development in East and Central Africa, Research Report 150. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research
Institute (IFPRI).
59. Sadoulet, E., De Janvry, A. (1995): Quantitative Development Policy Analysis, The
John Hopkins University Press Baltimore and London.
60. Shapiro, D. (1990): Farm size, household size and composition and women
contribution in agriculture: evidence from Zaire, J.Dev. Studies 27 (October), 1-21.
61. Shiferaw, B., Holden, S. (1998): Resource Degradation and Adoption of Land
Conservation Technologies in the Ethiopian Highlands: A case Study in Andit Tid, North
Shewa, Agricultural Economics, No. 18, pp. 233-247.
62. Singh, I., Squire, L., Strauss, J. (1986): Agricultural Household Models. Extension,
Applications and Policy, The Johns Hopkins University Press Baltimore, Maryland 21211,
USA.
63. Smale, M., Heisey, P. W. (1993): Simultaneous Estimation of Seed and Fertilizer
Adoption Decisions: An Application to Hybrid Maize in Malawi, Technological Forecasting
and Social Change, No. 43, pp. 35-368.
64. Smale, M., Just, R.E., Leathers, H.D. (1994): Land allocation in HYV adoption
models: an investigation of alternative explanations, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 76 (August), pp.
535-547.
65. Staal, S.J., Waithaka, M., Njoroge, L., Mwangi, D.M., Njubi, D., Wokabi, A. (2003):
Costs of milk production in Kenya: Estimates from Kiambu, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts,
SDP Research and Development, Report No.1Smallholder Dairy (R&D) Project.
66. Turinawe, A., Mugisha, J., Kabirizibi, J. (2011): Socio-Economic Evaluation of
Improved Forage Technologies in Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farming Systems in Uganda,
Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 163–174. http://doi.org/10.5539/jas.
v4n3p163
67. US AID (2013): Climate change and natural resource management, Addis Ababa:
USAID. Retrieved from http://www.usaid.gov/ethiopia/environment
68. Winston, J. R., Parsons, R.L., Hanson, G.D. (2000): A proftability analysis of dairy
feeding systems in the Northeast, Agricultural and resource economics review, No. 29, pp.
220–228.
69. Wünscher, T., Schultze-Kraft, R., Peters, M., Rivas, L. (2004): Early adoption of the
tropical forage legume Arachis Pintoi in Huetar Norte, Costa Rica, Experimental agriculture,
No. 40, pp. 257–268.
70. Yesuf, M., Di Falco, S., Deressa, T., Ringler, C., Kohlin, G. (2008): The impact of
climate change and adaptation on food production in low-income countries: evidence from
the Nile Basin, Ethiopia, Free downloads from IFPRI.
71. Yilma, Z., Guernebleich, E., Sebsibe, A., Fombad, R. (2011): A review of the
Ethiopian dairy sector, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: FAO Sub-Regional Offce for Eastern Africa
(FAO/SFE)
Published
2017-09-30
How to Cite
HADUSH, Muuz. EXPLORING FARMERS’ SEASONAL AND FULL YEAR ADOPTION OF STALL FEEDING OF LIVESTOCK IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA. Economics of Agriculture, [S.l.], v. 64, n. 3, p. 919-944, sep. 2017. ISSN 2334-8453. Available at: <http://ea.bg.ac.rs/index.php/EA/article/view/64>. Date accessed: 13 nov. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.5937/ekoPolj1703919H.
Section
Original scientific papers