Water scarcity, climate change, price volatility, agricultural output variability, and geo-political instability have determined new stressors and situations of risks that exert pressure on agro-ecological systems, farmers, people’s food security, and generally affect the well-being of the population. In recent times, resilience is seen as providing a new approach on how to analyse the effects of shocks and stressors that threaten people’s well-being. The question is whether there is a relationship between the inadequate access to basic services, as stressor of people’s physical access to food and food availability on the market, and food security, as an outcome of people’s well-being. Statistical data have been analysed with simple regression model. The case study of Romania is discussed, using twenty two observations. The main findings show that access to essential services, such as water and sanitation, are important in explaining household’s resilience capacity. Other stressors, such as rail lines density and road density, which determine the physical access to markets, have a less significant influence on food security. The relevance of the results lies in their capacity to emphasize the role of people’s access to basic needs in strengthening the resilience of individuals, families and regions, and to ensure, as a consequence, food security.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Altieri, M.A., Nicholls, C.I., Henao, A., & Lana, M.A. (2015). Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35, 869-890.
2. Anica Popa, I., Istudor, N., & Anica Popa, L. (2008). Using business intelligence techniques in agro-food domain, Multifunctional Agriculture and Rural Development (III) – rural development and (un) limited resources, Belgrad, 04-05 December 2008, 385-389.
3. Ashkenazy, A., Chebach, T.C., Knickel, K., Peter, S., Horovitz, B., & Offenbach, R. (2018). Operationalising resilience in farms and rural regions – Findings from fourteen case studies. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 211-221.
4. Atkociniene, V., Aleksandravicius, A., Zemeckis, R., Vitunskiene, V., Dautarte, A., Spruogis, V., Blockyte, L., Baltusiene, J., & Serv, E. (2015). Resilient Farming Systems and Market Differentiation: Challenges and Opportunities in Farmers’ Markets (Lithuania). RETHINK Case Study Report. Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
5. Adger W. (2006). Vulnerability. Global environmental change, 16, 268-281.
6. Adger, W., Brooks, N., Bentham, G., Agnew, M., & Eriksen, S. (2004). New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Norwich, UK. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.
7. Alinovi, L., Mane, E. & Romano, D. (2008). Measuring household resilience to food insecurity: application to palestinian households. Agricultural Survey Methods. Chichester, UK. John Wiley & Sons.
8. Bene, C., Headey, D., Haddad, L. & von Grebmer, K. (2016). Is resilience a useful concept in the context of food security and nutrition programmes? Some conceptual and practical considerations. Food Security, 8, 123-138.
9. Bennet, E. M., Cumming, G. S., & Peterson, G. D. (2005). A systems model approach to determining resilience surrogates for case studies. Ecosystems, 8, 945-957.
10. Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2003). Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
11. Bullock, J.M., Dhanjal-Adams, K.L., Milne, A., Oliver, T.H., Lindsay, T.C., Whitmore, A., P., & Richard, P., F. (2017). Resilience and food security: rethinking an ecological concept. Journal of Ecology, 105 (4). 880-884.
12. Bujones, A., Jaskiewicz, K., Linakis, L., & McGirr, M. (2013). A Framework for Analyzing Resilience In Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations. USAID Final Report. Columbia University SIPA 2013.
13. Catacora Vargas, G. (2017). Seguridad Alimentaria y Derecho a la Alimentación Resultados de una Evaluación Exploratoria entre Actores de Sistemas Alimentarios Agroecológico, Indígena y Agroindustrial en el Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Agruco, Cochabamba.
14. Cicchetti, D. (2010). Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multi-level perspective. World Psychiatry, 3, 145-154.
15. Ciani, F. (2011). A Resilience-based approach to food insecurity: the impact of hurricane Mitch on rural household in Nicaragua. PhD working paper. Florence, Italy. University of Florence.
16. Constantin, D.L. (1999). Regional competition in Romania: Determinants and policies, Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA).
17. FAO. (2018). Resilience analysis in Karamoja, Uganda. Rome: FAO.
18. FAO. (2016). Analysing Resilience for better targeting and action. Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis – II. Rome: FAO, Available at:
19. FAO. (2012). Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA). Available at
20. Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253–267.
21. Frankenberger, T., Spangler, T., Nelson, S., & Langworthy, M. (2012). Enhancing Resilience to Food Security Shocks in Africa. Discussion Paper. Available at default/files/discussion_paper_usaid_dfid_ wb_nov._8_2012.pdf
22. Gunderson, L., Allen, C., & Holling, C. (2010). Foundations of ecological resilience (eds.). London: Island Press.
23. Hecht, A.A., Biehl, E., Barnett, D.J., & Neff, R.A. (2018). Urban Food Supply Chain Resilience for Crises Threatening Food Security: A Qualitative Study. Acad Nutr Diet, 119(2), 211-224. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2018.09.001.
24. Holling CS. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 2 –23.
25. Hollnagel E., Woods D.D., & Leveson N.G. eds. 2006. Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
26. Ignat, R. (2019). Romanian entrepreneurship and resilience from the modern business structures perspectives: A conceptual approach, Quality-Access to Success, 20(S2), 319-321.
27. Ion, R.A. (2018). Beyond Macroeconomics of Food and Nutrition Security. International Journal of Sustainable Economies Management, 7(1), 13-22, doi: 10.4018/IJSEM.2018010102
28. Jacobi, J., Mukhovi, S., Llanque, A., Augstburger, H., Käser, F., Pozoc, C., Peter, M., N., Delgado, H., M., F., Kiteme, B., P., Rist, S., & Speranza, C., I. (2018). Operationalizing food system resilience: An indicator-based assessment in agroindustrial, smallholder farming, and agroecological contexts in Bolivia and Kenya. Land Use Policy, 79, 433-446,
29. Kwasek, M., & Cvijanovic, D. (2013). Threats To Food Security And Common Agricultural Policy. Economics of Agriculture, 59(4). Doi: 10.22004/ag.econ.143167.
30. Mutea, E. (2018). Livelihood-related drivers of food insecurity, poverty, and inequality in Nothwest and Southwest Mount Kenya. unpublished. Food Sec.
31. Pelletier, B., Hickey, G.M., Bothi, K.L., & Mude, A. (2016). Linking rural livelihood resilience and food security: an international challenge. Food Security, 8, 469-476.
32. Pike A., Dawley S., & Tomaney J. (2010). Resilience, adaptation and adaptability. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 59-70.
33. Pingali, P., Alinovi, L., & Sutton, J. (2005). Food security in complex emergencies: enhancing food system resilience. Disaster, 29(S1), 5-24.
34. RM-TWG (Resilience Measurement Technical Working Group). (2014). Resilience Measurement Principles - Toward an Agenda for Measurement Design. 1. Available at
35. Suweis, S., Carr, J.A., Maritan, A., Rinaldo, A., & D’Odorico, P. (2015). Resilience and reactivity of global food security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 6902-6907.
36. Tendall, D.M., Joerin, J., Kopainsky, B., Edwards, P., Shreck, A., Le, Q.B., Kruetli, P., Grant, & Six, J. (2015). Food system resilience: Defining the concept. Global Food Security, 6, 17-23.
37. Vaitla, B., Tesfary, G., Rounseville, M., & Maxwell, D. (2012). Resilience and Livelihoods Change in Tigray, Ethiopia. Somerville (MA), USA. Feinstein International Center, Tufts University.
38. Zseleczky, L., & Yosef, S. (2014). Are shocks really increasing? A selective review of the global frequency, severity, scope and impact of five types of shocks. 2020 Conference Paper 5. May 2014. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
How to Cite
ION, Raluca. THE ROLE OF THE POPULATION’S ACCESS TO BASIC NEEDS IN BUILDING RESILIENCE AND ENSURING FOOD SECURITY. CASE STUDY OF ROMANIA. Economics of Agriculture, [S.l.], v. 67, n. 2, p. 345-357, june 2020. ISSN 2334-8453. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 sep. 2020. doi:
Original scientific papers