• A. K. M. Kanak Pervez, PhD Dept. of Agronomy & Agricultural Extension, University of Rajshahi http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7413-9337
  • 2 Md. Ektear Uddin, PhD Dept. of Agricultural Extension & Rural Development, Patuakhali Science and Technology Uniersity, Dumki, Patuakhali
  • Ashfaq Ahmad Shah, PhD Development Studies Department, School of Social Sciences and Humanities (S3H), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST)
  • Foyez Ahmed Prodhan, MSc Dept. of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur
  • Md. Mohiuddin Sheikh, MSc Dept. of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University


The primary concentration of this study was to assess the marketing risks faced by hybrid rice growers and explore the trajectories. With this notion, data were collected from randomly selected 300 hybrid rice growers in purposively chosen areas with the application of a structured interview schedule and conducting five focus group discussions with the farmers. The study identified seven key risks responsible for the poor marketing of hybrid rice in Bangladesh. Perceived marketing risks were assessed by farmer’s opinion on likelihood and severity of each risk source through using a fuzzy-Likert scale. According to the finding ‘high fluctuation of hybrid rice price’ was the most serious risk in hybrid rice marketing in Bangladesh. The regression result found several socio-demographic factors of the farmers are significantly related with perceived risk. This study, therefore, suggests government taking pro policies for hybrid rice growers organized around farmers’ those socio-demographic characteristics for minimizing marketing risk.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Abdullah, M. & Hossain, M.R. (2013). A new cooperative marketing strategy for agricultural products in Bangladesh, World Review of Business Research 3(3), 130–144.
2. Alam, M.S. & Islam, M.A. (2013). Long-term assessment of rice production scenario in Bangladesh: a macro dynamics, Bangladesh, J. Agril. Res. 38(2): 257-269.
3. BBS. (2010). Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh, Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS).
4. BBS. (1993). Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS).
5. Bhuiyan, N. I., Paul D. N. R. & Jabber, M. A. (2002). Feeding the Extra Millions. Proceedings of the BRRI-DAE Workshop on Experiences of HYV Rice Production in Bangladesh, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur.
6. Botterill, L. & Mazur, N. (2004). Risk and Risk Perception: a Literature Review. Barton: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
7. Chowdhury, M.I. (2011). Agrarian Transition and Livelihoods of the Rural Poor: Agricultural Product Market, Dhaka: Unnayan Onneshan.
8. Cohen, L., Manison, L. & K. Morisson. (2000). Research Methods in Education, London: Routledge Falmer.
9. EC (European Commission). (2015). Bangladesh ECHO Factsheet, Brussels: Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department (ECHO).
10. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (1993). Soil Loss Accelerating Worldwide, Rome: FAO.
11. Feder, G.R., Just, R.E. & Zilberman, D. (1985). Adoption of agricultural innovation in developing countries: a survey, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 33(1): 255-298.
12. GoB (Government of Bangladesh) (2008). Cyclone Sidr In Bangladesh: Damage, Loss and Needs Assessment For Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction, Dhaka: Government of Bangladesh (GoB), Dhaka.
13. Habibi, A., Jahantigh, F. F. & Sarafrazi, A. (2015). Fuzzy-delphi technique for forecasting and screening items, Asian Journal of Research in Business Economic and Management 5(2): 30-143.
14. HIES, (2009). Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES), Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
15. Hodge, D.R. & Gillespie D. 2003. Phrase completions: an alternative to Likert scales, Social Work Research, 27 (1):45–55.
16. Islam, M.M., Bhuiyan, M.N.K. & Harun, M.Y. (2012). Development of value chain: an effective way of profitable duck farming in haor areas of Bangladesh, INFPD Good Practices of Family Poultry Production Note No 04. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-aq631e.pdf ( July 31, 2018)
17. Kadir, M.K.A., Hines, E.L., Qaddoum, K. R., Collier, Dowler, E., Grant, W., Leeson, M.S., Iliescu, D., Subramanian, A., Richards, K., Merali Y., & Napier, R.M.(2013). Food Security Risk Level Assessment: A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach, Applied Art International, 27(1): 50-61.
18. Kashem, M. A. & Faroque, M. A. A. (2011). A country scenarios of food security and governance in Bangladesh, J. Sci. Foundation, 9(1-2): 41-50
19. Khan, M.R.A. (2012). A proven model for achieving localized food security and farmers benefit protection, MPRA Paper No. 41383, Dhaka: Department of Agricultural Marketing.
20. Khatun M.A., Islam, M.A. & Majumder, S. (2013). why some poor women in Bangladesh do not opt for micro-credit? Journal Bangladesh Agricultural University 11(2): 285–292.
21. Kirilenko, A.P., Alcamo, J., Golubev, G.N., Dronin, N.M. & Endejan, M. (2004). Modeling the impact of climate changes on agriculture in Russia, Journal of Russian Academy of Sciences, 396(6): 819-822.
22. Krishi Diary, (2018), Dhaka: Agricultural Information Services.
23. Li, Q. (2013). A novel Likert scale based on fuzzy sets theory, Expert Systems Application, 40: 1609–1618.
24. Markowski A. S & Mannan, M.S. (2008). Fuzzy Risk Matrix, Journal of Hazardous Mathematics,156(1):152-57.
25. Matin, M.A., Baset, M.A., Alam, Q.M., Karim, M.R., Hasan, M.R. (2008). Mango marketing system in selected area of Bangladesh, Journal of Agricultural Research, 33 (3): 427-438.
26. McFall, W. Magnan, N. & Spielman, D.J. (2013). Hybrid rice as a pro-poor technology? evidence from Bangladesh, Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2013 AAEA & CAES Joint Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, August 4-6.
27. Miller, A., Dobbins, C., Pritchett, J., Boehlje, M. & Ehmke. C. (2004), Risk management for farmers, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
28. Miller, C. 2008. Risk mitigation and management for agricultural investment: investment and resource mobilization, Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization.
29. Nadhomi, D.L., Tenywa, J.S., Musali, P., & Nakileza, B.R. (2013). Farmers’ perception of erosion risk and its implication on the adoption of soil and water conservation practices. International Journal of Advance Agricultural Science and Technology, 2(1):28-44.
30. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory, New York: McGraw-Hill.
31. Parvez, S. (2014 October, 3). Hybrid rice wins back popularity, The Daily Star.
32. Pervez, A.K.M.K. (2018). A study of risk management strategy for hybrid rice production in Bangladesh, Thesis diss., China Agricultural University.
33. Pervez, A.K.M.K., Gao, Q. & Uddin, M.E. (2015). Rural women’s awareness on indigenous technical knowledge: case of northern Bangladesh, Anthropologist, 21(3): 415-426.
34. Pervez, A.K.M.K., Gao, Q. & Uddin. M.E. (2016). The management of agricultural risk in Bangladesh: a proposed process, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension Economics & Sociology, 12(1): 1-13.
35. Pervez, A.K.M.K., Gao, Q., Zeng, Y., & Uddin, M.E. (2017). Hybrid rice: Bangladesh’s failure and china’s success, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 10(1): 1-10.
36. Portik, T. & Pokoradi, L. (2014). The summarized weighted mean of maxima and its application at the end of risk assessment process, Acta Polyt. Hungarica, 11(3): 167-180.
37. Quddus, M.A. (2012). Adoption of dairy farming technologies by small farm holders: practices and constraints, Bangladesh Journal Animal Science, 41(2): 124-135.
38. Ragin, C.C. (2000). Fuzzy-set in social science, London: the University of Chicago Press Ltd.
39. Rashid, H.A., Julfiquar, A.W. & Ali, S. (2011). History, impact and current status of hybrid rice research, development and delivery in Bangladesh, Dhaka: Agricultural Advisory Society (AAS).
40. Renn, O. (2008). Concept of risk: an interdisciplinary review. Paper presented in the ISA Conference, Barcelona, September, 3-10.
41. Rivza, S. Z. & Rivza, P. (2013). Fuzzy-ANP based research on the risk assessment of biogas production from agricultural biomass, Paper presented in the international symposium on the analytical hierarchy process, Kualalumpur, June 23-26.
42. Ross, T.J. (2005). Fuzzy logic with engineering applications, New York: Wiley & Sons Ltd.
43. Sarwar, M.G., Islam, R., & Monzoor, S. (2007). Women’s rights to land in Bangladesh: roles, limitations and transformation, Dhaka: Unnayan Onneshan – The Innovators.
44. Shah, M.M. I., Grant, W. J. & Stocklmayer, S. (2015), Farmers’ perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh, S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext, 4(2):17-29.
45. Shaikh, M.A.Q. (2015, November, 15). Bangladesh Agriculture: Challenges Ahead”, the Daily Star.
46. Siddique, A.B. (2015, October, 30). Sea level rising by 6-20mm each year, Dhaka Tribune.
47. Smithson, M. & Verkuilen, J. (2006). Fuzzy set theory: applications in the social sciences, quantitative applications in the social sciences, CA: Sage, Belmont.
48. Soussan, J. & Arriens, W.L. (2004). Poverty and water security: understanding how water affects the poor, Manila: Asian Development Bank.
49. Sultana, A. (2012). Rice marketing in Bangladesh: from the perspective of village study at cox’s bazar district, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(45): 5995 -6004.
50. The Daily Star, (2011, the Daily Star). Climate and hunger: Bangladesh fifth most vulnerable country.
51. Uddin, M.F. 2012. Application of fuzzy logic in sociological research: an instance of potential payoff, Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 9(2):7-18.
52. UN (2009). Disaster risk reduction in the United Nations: roles, mandates and areas of work of key United Nations entities, Washington DC: UN.
53. UN (2010). World population prospects: the 2008 revision, Washington DC: UN.
54. WB (2013). Warming climate to hit Bangladesh hard with sea level rise, more floods and cyclones, World Bank press release, June 19, Washington D.C., USA.
55. WB (2015). The World Bank data: Bangladesh”, Available at http://data.worldbank.org/country/bangladesh (accessed 15 October, 2017)
56. Yu, J. & Lee. S. (2012). A conflict-risk assessment model for urban regeneration projects using fuzzy-FMEA. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 16 (7): 1093-1103.
57. Zadeh, L.A. (1965). Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control 8: 338-353.
How to Cite
PERVEZ, A. K. M. Kanak et al. FUZZY-LIKERT SCALE BASED ASSESSMENT OF MARKETING RISK FACED BY THE HYBRID RICE GROWERS OF BANGLADESH. Economics of Agriculture, [S.l.], v. 66, n. 1, p. 9-22, mar. 2019. ISSN 2334-8453. Available at: <http://ea.bg.ac.rs/index.php/EA/article/view/1353>. Date accessed: 22 oct. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.5937/ekoPolj1901009K.
Original scientific papers